Nano-asphalt™ – a trademark of sulfur-asphalt concrete – an innovative road surface containing Nano-binder ™. Asphalt mix with Nano-binder™, which contains bitumen / tar.
Nano-binder ™ – a trademark of a sulfur binder – modified sulfur plus other organic substances, the crystal lattice of which, under the influence of temperature and ultrasound, has been rearranged into a polymer at the level of several nanometers (molecular level).
Copolymers are polymerization products of a mixture of two or more monomers. Copolymer macromolecules are composed of two or more types of monomer units. Polymers obtained by copolymerizing two monomers are called bipolymers, three – terpolymers, four – quaterpolymers. An alternating copolymer is a copolymer in the macromolecules of which monomer units of two different types alternate with a certain frequency, that is, they are distributed in the form of regular alternating sequences.
Modified sulfur – sulfur with additives that change its properties and crystal structure. Sulfur, which has undergone physical and chemical processes that have changed its properties and crystalline structure.
Sulfur concrete is an artificial stone-like material, which is a hardened sulfur concrete mixture. In terms of composition, sulfur concrete is a composite material, which includes sulfur binder, inert fillers and aggregates.
Natural bitumen (from Latin bitumen – mountain tar, oil) – mineral complexes (combustible organic substances), consisting of hydrocarbons; formed from protein and fatty substances of lower organisms. From a genetic point of view, bitumen includes earth gas, oil, earth tar, asphalt), as well as natural derivatives of oil (malts, asphalts, asphaltites, kerites, huminokerites, ozokerites, anthraxolites, etc.) and their analogs (oil eaters).
Petroleum bitumen are used mainly in road construction (asphalt, road bitumen), roofing and waterproofing materials. The safest in terms of carcinogenicity for humans are straight-run petroleum bitumens BN-3 and BN-4, which are recommended for use in coal briquetting. Coal bitumen with increased carcinogenicity is used in road construction only after additional processing.
Tar (French goudron, German Goudron m) is the residue resulting from the distillation of fractions from oil at atmospheric pressure and under vacuum, boiling up to 450-600 ° C (depending on the nature of the oil) … The tar yield is from 10 to 45% of the oil mass. Tar is a viscous liquid or solid black asphalt product with a shiny fracture. Almost all metals present in oil are concentrated in tar; so, the content of vanadium can reach 0.046%, nickel – 0.014%. Tar is used for the production of road, roofing and construction bitumen, low ash coke, lubricating oils, fuel gases and motor fuels.
Asphalt concrete is an artificial material obtained as a result of compaction of a specially selected mixture of crushed stone (or gravel), sand, mineral powder and bitumen binder – artificial (petroleum) bitumen or a mixture of tar and sand.
Astringents are substances capable of hardening as a result of chemical and physical processes occurring during the transition from a pasty mixture to a solid one.
Engineering is a branch of human intellectual activity and a process whose task is the design, creation, construction, use, maintenance, processing or disposal of objects.
The Soxhlet Extractor
The Soxhlet Extractor is a laboratory device first described by Franz von Soxhlet in 1879. The Soxhlet extractor is used to isolate substances from complex mixtures, provided that the required compound is limitedly soluble in a certain solvent, and the impurities are insoluble in it. The mixture, from which it is necessary to extract the required compound, is placed in a special container (cartridge) made of thick filter paper and placed in the upper part of the extractor. At the bottom is a flask containing a boiling solvent for extraction. Through the specific design of the device, the paper cartridge is continuously washed with the condensed solvent, flushing the substance from the cartridge into the lower flask. Although the extractor was first developed for the extraction of lipids from solid mixtures, its range of applications has since expanded considerably.
A subsidy is a financial assistance provided by the state at the expense of the budget, as well as special funds to legal entities, local government bodies. This is a type of targeted assistance to the specified persons, provided at the expense of budgets or trust funds. The subsidy is used to balance regional and local budgets, strengthen their revenue base and is always transferred irrevocably and free of charge from the highest levels of the budget system to the lower levels to finance specific measures and institutions, that is, they have targeted character.
Nano-concrete™ is a trade mark for sulfur-concrete with the use of Nano-binder™. Artificial stone-like material, which is a hardened mixture. It is a composite material that contains Nano-binder™ (does not contain bitumen / tar) and inert fillers. The range of used inert fillers and other fillers is wide – crushed stone, sand, gravel, metallurgical slags and other rocks that are used for traditional cement concrete and asphalt concrete can be used in the manufacturing recipe.
Polymer – natural and artificial macromolecular compounds, the molecules of which consist of a large number of repeating identical or different atomic groups (monomers) linked by chemical or coordination bonds into long linear or branched chains.
Sulfur – chemical element with atomic number 16. It is a non-metal, yellow crystalline substance. It occurs naturally in its native state and in the form of heavy metal sulfides, pyrite and others. Sulfur is used mainly in the chemical industry for the production of sulfuric acid, synthetic fiber, sulfur dyes, black powder, in the rubber industry, as well as in agriculture, pharmaceuticals, etc. friend.
Sulfur asphalt is an innovative paving material containing any kind of urgent binder. Asphalt with modified sulfur content – Sulfur asphalt or Sulfur asphalt concrete – is distinguished not only by its higher quality compared to traditional counterparts, but also by a more attractive price. Sulfur asphalt is characterized by zero moisture permeability, has a high degree of wear resistance and a low tendency to erosion, even in a chemically aggressive environment. In the production of sulfur asphalt in a relatively cheap way, they replace a part (up to 50%) of expensive artificial petroleum bitumen, not only reduce the price of the finished product, but also improve the physical properties of the asphalt pavement.
Sulfur binder – sulfur with additives, change its properties and crystal structure, which allows it to bond, glue solid materials and solidify to form a strong stone, binding grains of sand, gravel, crushed stone, and others and partially replace petroleum bitumen.
Artificial bitumes (products of oil and coal refining) are solid plastic or viscous mixtures of hydrocarbons and their derivatives. It is obtained mainly from the residues of oil refining, cracking, cleaning of lubricating oils (petroleum bitumen), coal tar (coal bitumen), as well as by extraction from peat and brown coal. In Ukraine, bitumen is extracted from peat and brown coal with benzene. The appearance and qualities of bitumen, which stand out from peat and brown coal, are different. They can be yellow, light brown, brown or black in color. Some of them are hard and brittle, others are amorphous powders, and still others are lubricating and resinous products of various viscosities. When analyzing bitumen of peat and brown coal, two groups of constituent substances are mainly determined – waxes and resins.
The most valuable bitumen are those that contain more waxes.
Bituminous binder is a substance consisting mainly of a mixture of high molecular weight hydrocarbons, methane, naphthenic and aromatic series and their oxygen and sulfur derivatives.
Sour tar is a waste product that is generated during the refining of certain petroleum products (eg lubricating oils) with concentrated sulfuric acid. It is a viscous black liquid containing, together with organic matter, 15-70% sulfuric acid. It is used in the production of bitumen, as a road building material, as a softener in the rubber industry, etc.
Olefinic hydrocarbons (olefins)
Olefinic hydrocarbons (olefins) – unsaturated hydrocarbons with an open chain of the general formula СnН2n; contain one double bond, which determines their ability to add and polymerize reactions.
Composite material – an artificially created material from or more than two phases (matrix and reinforcement), differing from each other both in appearance and composition, have clearly defined boundaries and shape, and also have new physicochemical properties that were designed earlier.
A sensor is a measuring device in the form of a constructive set of one or more measuring transducers of a quantity measured and controlled and producing an output signal convenient for remote transmission of information, storage and use in control systems and has normalized metrological properties. For example, in mining and road construction, ash, moisture, sulfur content, material level sensors (for example, in bunkers), limit switches (for example, on conveyors), etc. are widely used.
A grant is a non-reimbursable, non-repayable aid from a higher level budget, which has no targeted character and is provided in case of excess of expenses over income.
A subvention (from Latin subvenio “I come”) is a form of monetary assistance to local budgets from the state budget, intended for a specific purpose / purposes. A subvention is a targeted subsidy to local budgets from the state budget.